Musculoskeletal Ultrasound Course

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On-Demand Education

Medial Shoulder Syndrome, Why is it Becoming so Common? 
In the Clean Run Learning Center

Earn 3 RACE-Approved CE Credits

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Why is Medial Shoulder Syndrome (MSS) becoming so common, and how do you prevent it?

For a long time, MSS has been the most common forelimb orthopedic condition seen in agility dogs; however, over the past few years, the global incidence is rising at a startling rate. Why? In this webinar, Dr. Canapp digs deep into the cause of the injury, diagnostics, treatment options, prevention techniques, and maintenance (including supplements, home modalities, shoulder exercises, conditioning activities, etc.).

Dr. Canapp also shares the results of the landmark MSS study, Return to Agility Following MSS, 2006-2019. This data includes what owners were noticing as it related to performance problems. Did dogs that were spayed/neutered have a higher incidence of injury? What were the most common running surfaces where the injury occurred? Which therapies worked and which failed? Were the dogs able to return to agility after treatment and at what level? And much, much more!

Whether you train and compete in agility or other performance dog sports, or you are a veterinarian or rehab specialist that works with agility dogs, you need to tune in. It’s all about education, awareness, early identification, and prevention.

Iliopsoas Strains Webinar Plus in the Clean Run Learning Center

Earn 1 RACE-Approved CE Credit


Iliopsoas strains are generally regarded to be an overuse injury. While any of us can injure our iliopsoas, sprinters, gymnasts, athletes who perform repeated hip flexion movements, and athletes who engage in plyometric jumping exercises (short-term, high-energy exercises) are at a much higher risk for the condition, due to the nature of their activities.


Our canine athletes are also required to sprint as well as perform high-energy jumping and other repetitive activities. So, it's easy to understand why hip flexor strains are identified so often in performance dogs.


Whether you train and compete in performance dog sports, or you are a veterinarian or rehab specialist that works with performance dogs, you need to tune in. It’s all about education, awareness, early identification, and prevention.


Journal of


Interview with Sherman O. Canapp, Jr., DVM, MS, CCRT

Canine Sports
Medicine & Rehabilitation

Chapter written by Sherman O. Canapp, Jr., DVM, MS, CCRT

Surgery: Small Animal

Chapter written by Sherman O. Canapp, Jr., DVM, MS, CCRT


Ultrasonographic Findings in 41 Dogs Treated with Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate and Platelet-Rich Plasma for a Supraspinatus Tendinopathy: A Retrospective Study


Overall, treatment of an ST with BMAC-PRP was associated with a decrease in individual tendon CSA over time, and a return of the affected tendon CSA to that of the contralateral limb, where an unaffected contralateral tendon was available for evaluation. An evaluation of fiber pattern and echogenicity revealed an improvement in most cases. Resolution of architectural changes was rarely achieved, however, the follow-up period was short, and resolution of sonographic abnormalities may not be a realistic goal in a setting of chronic tendinopathy. Additional, prospective, controlled, studies are required to evaluate the clinical and functional benefits of BMAC-PRP, however, it appears to be a potentially viable treatment alternative for ADPC-PRP in dogs with an ST.

Average Tibial Plateau Angle of 3,922 Stifles Undergoing Surgical Stabilization for Cranial Cruciate Ligament Rupture


Our reported preoperative TPA in a large sample of dogs is higher than what has been previously published. In reviewing 3,922 stifles, the average preoperative TPA was 29°. We report the average preoperative TPA in specific breeds and report that neutered dogs have a significantly higher TPA than intact dogs. This updated information may guide clinicians in management decisions regarding treatment for CrCL rupture.

Evaluation of Achilles Tendon Injuries with Findings from Diagnostic Musculoskeletal Ultrasound in Canines – 43 Cases

CONCLUSION: Diagnostic musculoskeletal ultrasound was used to identify lesions of Achilles tendon consistent with different grade of strain, as well as identifying the specific region of injury. Diagnostic ultrasound findings were correlated to the surgical findings and previous literature.

Sensitivity and Specificity of a Weight Distribution Platform for the Detection of Objective Lameness and Orthopaedic Disease


The WDP provided the highest combined sensitivity and specificity at cut-off point 2 below the normal value for the detection of both OL and OD.

Scintigraphic evaluation of dogs with acute synovitis after treatment with glucosamine hydrochloride and chondroitin sulfate.


Analysis of results of this study suggest that prior treatment with GlAm-CS for 21 days had a protective effect against chemically induced synovitis and associated bone remodeling. Prior treatment with GlAm-CS also reduced lameness in dogs with induced synovitis.

Quantitative Comparison of the Walk and Trot of Border Collies and Labrador Retrievers, Breeds with Different Performance Requirements

RESULTS: The mean T/P TPI% for Border Collies at a walk and at a trot were significantly lower than for Labrador Retrievers (p = 0.0007 and p = 0.0003). Border Collies had a significantly lower ST% than Labrador Retrievers for the thoracic limbs and pelvic limbs at a walk (p = 0.0058 and 0.0003) and the trot (p = 0.0280 and 0.0448). There was no relationship between ST% and TSrL in Border Collies and an inverse correlation between ST% and TSrL in Labrador Retrievers (p = 0.0002).

Fortetropin inhibits disuse muscle atrophy in dogs after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy


Dogs receiving Fortetropin® had a similar increase in stance force on the affected limb, no

significant increase in serum myostatin levels, and no significant reduction in thigh circumference at the end of the period of forced exercise restriction compared to the placebo.

These findings support the feeding of Fortetropin® to prevent disuse muscle atrophy in

canine patients undergoing a tibial plateau leveling osteotomy.

Adhesive Capsulitis in Eight Dogs: Diagnosis and Management


 Adhesive capsulitis is an uncommon cause of chronic forelimb lameness. Further investigation is needed to describe the etiology and pathogenesis of adhesive capsulitis in dogs to evaluate the effectiveness of both non-surgical and surgical treatment modalities, establish treatment protocols, and evaluate short- and long-term clinical outcome of patients. 

Treatment of medial shoulder joint instability in dogs by extracapsular stabilization with a prosthetic ligament: 39 cases (2008-2013)

RESULTS:  All grades of MSI were represented. Implants were placed successfully in all dogs. Complications (4 major and 2 minor) were recorded for 6 of 39 (15%) dogs; all were treated successfully. Function at the time of last follow-up (6 to 68 months) was deemed full in 30 of 39 (77%) dogs and acceptable in 9 (23%). 

Partial Cranial Cruciate Ligament Tears Treated with Stem Cell and Platelet-Rich Plasma Combination Therapy in 36 Dogs: A Retrospective Study


The use of BMAC–PRP and ADPC–PRP shows promise for the treatment of early partial CCL tears in dogs. Further studies are needed and should be randomized, blinded, and controlled. 

Retrospective Study on External Canine Limb Prosthesis used in 24 patients


External prosthetics may help improve quality of life and should be considered as an alternative to euthanasia where full amputation or alternative methods of limb spare are not an option. 

Canine Platelet-Rich Plasma Systems: A Prospective Analysis

RESULTS:   Platelet concentration was significantly increased for System 1 (p=0.0088) and System 3 (p<0.0001), and was significantly decreased for System 2 (p<0.0001). All five systems significantly decreased the red blood cell concentration (p<0.0001 for each system comparison). Neutrophil concentration was significantly decreased for System 2, System 3, and System 4 (p<0.0001 for each system comparison). Neutrophil concentration was significantly increased for System 5 (p=0.0089). 

The Use of Adipose-Derived Progenitor Cells and Platelet-Rich Plasma Combination for the Treatment of Supraspinatus Tendinopathy in 55 Dogs: A Retrospective Study


 These findings suggest that ADPC-PRP therapy should be considered for dogs with ST. 

Supraspinatus Tendinopahty in 327 Dogs: A Retrospective Study


These findings suggest concurrent shoulder and/or elbow pathology is not uncommon in dogs with ST. Further, ST often fails to respond to NSAID therapy and rehabilitation therapy. 

Rate of return to agility competition for dogs with cranial cruciate ligament tears treated with tibial plateau leveling osteotomy

RESULTS:  20 of 31 (65%) dogs returned to agility competition after TPLO, 16 (80%) of which returned within 9 months after TPLO. The mean convalescent period for returning dogs was 7.5 months (range, 3 to 12 months). No dog that returned to competition sustained an injury to the affected limb during

the follow-up period. No significant difference was identified between dogs that returned or did not return to agility competition regarding severity of osteoarthritis or proportions with meniscal injury or partial (vs complete) CrCL tears.

Traumatic fracture of the medial coronoid process in 24 dogs

RESULTS: Twenty-four dogs were included in this study. All dogs in this study were free of radiographic evidence of medial coronoid pathology. All dogs were diagnosed with a single, large, displaced or non-displaced fracture of the medial coronoid process, with no other joint pathology. Dogs generally had an excellent short-term outcome following arthroscopic treatment.

The Use of Canine Stifle Orthotics for Cranial Cruciate Ligament Insufficiency


Custom canine stifle orthotics allow for improved weight bearing in the affected limb.

Evaluation of Iliopsoas Strain with Findings from Diagnostic Musculoskeletal Ultrasound in Agility Performance Canines - 73 Cases


Diagnostic musculoskeletal ultrasound was used to identify lesions of the iliopsoas tendon consistent with acute and chronic injury, as well as identifying the region of pathology. The majority of agility performance dogs had low grade acute strains based on the tiered system, with mixed acute and chronic lesions being noted frequently. ​

Rehabilitation Therapy for Elbow Disorders in Dogs

THORACIC LIMB lameness caused by elbow pathology occurs commonly in dogs. The etiopathogenesis and surgical management for elbow disorders are well documented; however, recommendations and protocols for rehabilitation therapy after surgical intervention are not well described.

Rehabilitation after elbow injury or elbow surgery follows a sequential and progressive multiphased approach with the ultimate goal being to return the dog to its previous functional level as quickly and safely as possible. Several key principles must be addressed when rehabilitating the elbow: (1) the effects of immobilization must be minimized, (2) healing tissue must not be overstressed (3) the dog must fulfill certain criteria throughout the phases of rehabilitation, (4) the program must be based on current scientific and clinical research, (5) the

process must be adaptable to each dog and their specific goals, and (6) the rehabilitation program must be a team effort between the surgeon, rehabilitation therapists, owner, and dog. Communication between each team member is essential to successful outcomes.

© 2020 Canapp Sports Medicine, LLC

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